Surface waters


One of the core activities of the National Environmental Center is to protect surface waters.

The water resources of the Republic of Moldova are represented by surface waters and underground waters. The surface waters, formed on the basis of small rivers and lakes, are an indispensable and extremely precious part of Moldova's natural environment. The water catchment area of the Republic of Moldova is represented by 3621 rivers and rivulets, including 7 with the length of over 100 km, 247 more than 10 km, 57 lakes with the surface of the water mirror of 62.2 km2 and about 3000 ponds and accumulation basins, with a volume of 1.8 km3 and a surface mirror of 333 km2. The Republic of Moldova has 82 artificial water basins, the largest being Costeşti-Stânca on Prut (735 mln.m3 water) and Dubăsari on the Nistru river (277.4 mln.m3 water). This data is one of the important prerequisites for aquatic resources management and the proper maintenance of ecological statuses, the existence of a surveillance system, the provision of information on quantity, quality, state, dynamics, space and time interactions, prediction of deterioration or improvement of quality, and so on.
All aquatic objects: rivers, canals, lakes, reservoirs and ponds are considered as surface waters and are considered the national property of the Republic of Moldova. Water Law no. 272 of 23.12.2011, Article 5 provides as follows: The management of water resources provides that the river basin district is the main unit for the management of the river basins and groundwater associated with them; sub-basins, in turn, are delimited in districts. Government Decision no. 775 from 04.10.2013 regarding the boundaries of the basins and sub-basins districts and the special maps, in which they are determined, acting on the basis of the Water Law no. 272 of 23.12.2011, delimited the boundaries of two hydrographic districts: Prut and Nistru. Within these river basin districts are included 4 river basins: the Danube, the Black Sea, the Prut and the Nistru. In these hydrographic basins, 39 hydrographic sub-basins are distinguished: Sarata, Hagider, Chirghis-Chitai, Catlabuh, Cahul, Racovat, Vilia-Lopatnic, Camenca, Caldarusa, Sovat, Delia, Bratuleanca, Sărata, Ciuhur, Ciorna-Rezina, Racovăţ-Sănătăuca-Alcedar, Rîbniţa-Iagorlic, Răut, Nistrul Vechi-Ştiubei-Liman, Ocnita- Ocna, Ichel, Colcotov-Cuciurgan, Nistru, Lipusna, Frumoasa-Crihana, Alcalia, Girla Mare-Soltoaia, Larga, Tigheci, Saharna-Jidauca, Cogilnic, Ialpug.

Advanced surface water degradation, expressed by decreasing flows, partial or total clogging, strong pollution, drying during the warm period of the year, drastic decrease in abundance, or even total disappearance of hydrobiontes in rivers, as well as other negative aspects, confirm the ecological disbalance and poses a real danger to the entire environment. Part of the population unconsciously contributes to aggravation of the situation by setting up fountains for capturing spring waters, constructing ponds in small river beds, storing solid waste on river banks, discharging used domestic water into flowing waters, grazing animals in protection areas, and other actions harmful to the aquatic environment. The wetlands have virtually disappeared from the river beds; the water regime of the soils has changed radically, the desertification processes are increasing. There is a decrease in the level of the groundwater in the meadow areas, drying of a large number of wells. The management of water resources is imperfect. The authorities do not have plans for surface water management; the cadastre of the waters is missing. The implementation of the basin principle of surface water management is just at the beginning. Development of the water balance at the level of the locality, rayon, sub-basin is not practiced, the evidence of water consumption for different purposes is poor. There are lacking structures responsible for water management at the local level, the control of water use and protection is inefficient. Large deficiencies exist in qualitative monitoring and lack of qualitative monitoring of
small river water. The aspects of water management in the context of climate change are not researched and taken into account.

Surface water indicates an advanced degree of pollution and degradation, as a result of inadequate water resource management over several decades. The erroneous approach to water resources, which prevailed in the 1950s-70s of the last century, led to the deformation of the river bed by channeling them, which is why today we have heavily degraded rivers with an advanced degree of slush, poor self-purification power, low water volume of excessive pollution. And since the 1990s, the protection strips of many rivers have been grubbed up, and lands in the riverside are processed for agricultural purposes, accentuating the degradation and pollution of internal rivers. In addition to these factors, on the internal rivers of the Republic of Moldova, 4127 lakes and ponds of different sizes are recorded in 2017, most of them lacking passports / operating regulations, respectively being administered inadequately and not respecting the rules of water evacuation. Consequently, the internal water flow rate is low, leading to an advanced degree of sludge and lower water self-purification capacity.
In addition to the degradation factors, there are also a number of pollution factors, such as wastewater, waste and chemicals. At present, there are 195 sewage treatment plants in the Republic of Moldova, but none of them purify wastewater according to the regulations in force. In addition, economic operators do not comply with the existing regulations on the disposal of waste water in centralized sewerage and/or exhaust systems in the water bodies, which, on the one hand, makes difficult the proper functioning of the newly built wastewater treatment plants, on the other hand, where there are no sewage treatment plants, industrial waters discharged directly into surface waters destroy aquatic ecosystems and pollute excessively the rivers.
Besides the waste water, in the Republic of Moldova there are registered 3384 garbage dumps in 2017, where waste of all types, including the hazardous ones, is stored. These landfills are not respecting environmental pollution prevention rules, polluting both surface and underground soil and water.

 

Taking into account that water is of major importance for the existence of life and directly influences the health of the population, the implementation of the integrated water resource management principles is absolutely imperative for the Republic of Moldova. These principles entail ensuring all access to water in a river basin, from spring to sink, in sufficient quantity and of good quality. The principles of integrated water resource management are contained in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which has been transposed into national law by the adoption of the Water Law no. 272 of 23.12.2011 and related normative framework.

An important role in this process plays the Basin Committees, whose function is to analyze the river basin situation and to adopt advisory decisions addressed to the parties concerned, which are to restore the situation in compliance with the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles. At the same time, taking into account the advanced degree of degradation and pollution of the rivers in the Republic of Moldova, it is advisable that these Basin Committees to be set up and functional, including at the level of hydrographic sub-basins. At the same time, as the number of hydrographic sub-basins is quite large in the Republic of Moldova (39 sub-basins), and the process of forming the Sub-Basins Committees and increasing the capacity of its members in order to be able to exercise their functions requires a longer period of time , this sub-basin prioritization exercise illustrates a picture of the current situation at hydrographic sub-basin level in order to make a gradual planning of actions towards the implementation of the IWRM principles.

N/o

Area, km2

Districts

Basins

Subbasins

1.

451.018

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Black Sea

Sărata

2.

201.905

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Black Sea

Hagider

3.

148.776

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Danube

Chirghiş - Chitai

4.

6.26992318126

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Danube

Catlabuh

5.

878.659

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Danube

Cahul

6.

669.6

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Racovăţ

7.

723.824

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Vilia - Lopatnic

8.

503.321

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Camenca

9.

321.638

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Căldăruşa

10.

506.345

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Şovăţ

11.

241.285

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Delia

12.

388.036

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Bratuleanca

13.

138.511

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Varşava

14.

543.808

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Nîrnova

15.

732.117

Danube-Prut and Black Sea 

Prut

Sărata

16.

882.838

Danube-Prut and Black Sea 

Prut

Ciuhur

17.

533.725

Nistru

Nistru

Ciorna - Rezina

18.

603.116

Nistru

Nistru

Racovăţ - Sănătăuca - Alcedar

19.

740.712

Nistru

Nistru

Rîbniţa - Iagorlîc

20.

7782.94

Nistru

Nistru

Răut

21.

592.926

Nistru

Nistru

Nistrul Vechi - Ştiubei - Liman

22.

650.602

Nistru

Nistru

Ocniţa - Ocna

23.

878.067

Nistru

Nistru

Ichel

24.

1343.22

Nistru

Nistru

Iagorlîcul Uscat - Comarova

25.

1699.73

Nistru

Nistru

Botna

26.

365.662

Nistru

Nistru

Bălţata - Şerpeni

27.

2213.62

Nistru

Nistru

Bîc

28.

593.258

Nistru

Nistru

Năslavcea - Vasilcău

29.

780.383

Nistru

Nistru

Colcotov - Cuciurgan

30.

6.52624664855

Nistru

Nistru

Nistru

31.

624.677

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Lăpuşna

32.

441.839

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Frumoasa - Crihana

33.

32.4276

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Black Sea

Alcalia

34.

703.943

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Gîrla Mare - Şoltoaia

35.

353.4

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Larga

36.

368.428

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Prut

Tigheci

37.

455.906

Nistru

Nistru

Saharna - Jidauca

38.

1580.97

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Black Sea

Cogîlnic

39.

3245.59

Danube-Prut and Black Sea

Danube

Ialpug





                              

The Republican institutions and organizations that provide data are:

State Hydrometeorological Service: the amount of rainfall, the amount of water leakage on rivers, the degree of water pollution in rivers and lakes;

"Apele Moldovei" Agency: the capacity and condition of lakes and ponds in the country, the use of water for rivers and water accumulations, the state of dams,

State Environmental Inspectorate and district inspections: river water quality, wastewater discharge volume in natural receptors, water use permits, water law violations,

The National Public Health Center and its structures in the territory: the chemical and microbiological composition of the waters used for drinking purposes from surface and groundwater sources, the quality of the water discharged into the natural Biollogical Treatment Stationas receptors, the quality of the waters in the bathing pools;

Fisheries Service: water quality in rivers and ponds for fish growth, industrial and amateur fishing volume, poaching cases;

Institute of Ecology and Geography: results of scientific research of aquatic ecosystems;

Institute of Zoology: the results of the scientific research of aquatic fauna;

The Botanical Garden (Institute): the results of the scientific research of the aquatic flora;

National Environmental Center, REC-Moldova, M.E.M., other environmental NGOs: books, brochures, flyers, maps, other informative materials regarding surface waters

 Below you can watch the movie about the campaign  "Love Your River!", developed in 2013.

 

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